Category Archives: Environment

Wuppertal Introduction

This city is both poly-centric and a linear city. Along its axis is the 13km-long suspension railway (Schwebebahn), with around 65,000 passengers each day using its 20 stations. Alongside this is the heavy rail line with 400 train journeys daily through 9 stations, and below these is the B7 German federal highway. Crossing all of them is the Sonnborner cross-motorway junction, which at the time of its opening in 1974 was considered the largest inner-city motorway intersection in Europe. This place is very well connected.

The city is said to have no clear centre. It has two major urban centres (Elberfeld and Barmen) and five other districts, which are predominantly small towns with their own centres. The city of Wuppertal was not actually governed by a single city council until 1929, when 5 smaller cities united, then in 1975 it divided into 9 municipalities or boroughs, which are further divided into 69 districts for statistical purposes. (Hamilton is divided into 44 areas by Census NZ).

Wuppertal claims to be the greenest city in Germany, and is said to have two-thirds green space in the total municipal area. From any part of the city, it is only a ten-minute walk to one of the public parks or woodland paths. Here is an explanation of how it is measured. In total, 29% (4858 hectares) of the urban area is forest and open spaces, 7.8% (1318 hectares) consists of parks and green space, and 21% (about 3500 hectares) is used for agriculture. In addition, there are about 8000 allotments on 380 hectares and 46 cemeteries on an area of ​​160 hectares. The Wupper River also now flows clean and is alive with wild life, unlike two decades ago when schools would need to close because of the bad smell coming from it. As a benchmark of how green Hamilton is: ‘Currently, Hamilton has around 2% indigenous habitat cover.(p28) … at least 10% (preferably 20%) of remnant habitat cover is needed across a landscape to protect biodiversity and maintain the functions of ecosystems (p44)’. From: Community, Services and Environment Committee 30 Oct 2018

A bit of history on the cities of Elberfeld and Barmen, which together boasted 189,489 inhabitants in 1880, then the conurbation was regarded as the sixth largest city in the German Empire after Berlin, Hamburg, Breslau, Munich and Dresden. Cologne (144,772 inhabitants), Dusseldorf (95,458) and all cities of the Ruhr were well down in the bottom rankings.

From 1874 a horse tramway served the local traffic needs of the valley. But the local traffic problems continued to increase. In June 1903, the suspension railway opened. Bench-mark this against the world’s first electric elevated railway, which started in 1893 in Chicago when its population  was over 1 million; in 2012, the average number of weekday boardings on the Chicago Green Line was 70,554.  The Chicago model was proposed for partner towns along the Wupper River, but there were protests from the horse tramway company and a public discussion on the possible disfigurement of the cityscape, so the Schwebebahn was built.

What we need to ask ourselves is can we take on a project like this? Hamilton city is moving toward the population that Elberfeld and Barmen had 100 years ago. The people of these cities allowed themselves to let their interests overlap into each other’s cities. Even more impressive is the fact at a regional level the ‘Verkhrsverbund* Rhein-Ruhr’ (VRR) rail and ticketing extends into neighbouring regions and a neighbouring country (The Netherlands). Now look at the Hamilton to Auckland link. Our leaders have been living in silos and only recently allowed themselves to think about the overlapping benefits public transport links give to the regions. They now need to be ambitious. In 1887, the Elberfeld and Barmen councillors chose a ‘commission for examining the project of an elevated railway.’ Sixteen years and 16 million gold marks later the Wuppertal Schwebebah begain providing Wuppertal a public transport service, which has now been in operation for over a hundred years. (*means ‘Transport network’)

Lunch in Venlo NL

The other week my wife and I stopped for lunch in the city of Venlo, on our way to Wuppertal from Schipol airport. Venlo has a population of just over 101,000 people, with a population density of about 800 people per km2. On leaving the rail station we saw the Venlo bus station, which services 3 bus routes and 8 regional routes (Hamilton has over 20 routes). The station has drive-through berths, allowing bus stops to be located in a compact area, and also can allow buses to wait with their front destination sign facing the direction passengers will arrive from. I like the way the Dutch design tidy and uncluttered areas in a way very few other designers can do.

The city has a reputation for being Green. I did notice the electric bus charging stations, and but sadly I didn’t have time to look into their ‘cradle-to-cradle’ (C2C) principles; in the future I would like to explore this more, but for now here is an introductory explanation

‘The Venlo region was the first in the world to embrace the principles of cradle-to-cradle (C2C). It is a method that minimises the environmental impact of products by employing sustainable production, operation, and disposal practices, so that products can be 100% recyclable and waste can serve as a raw material.’

Dutch cities are nicer than German cities. Venlo being close to the German and being part of the large Verkhrsverbund* Rhein-Ruhr (VRR) ticketing area, it attracts many visitors from there, and on the Wednesday we were there the city streets and squares were pleasantly busy. (*means ‘Transport network’)

What I did make time for was to take a look at Maasboulevard, promoted as ‘the place to meet’. I’ve visited many cities with river promenades; on sunny days these places attract plenty of people coming out to enjoy the open space and to people-watch, which is the reason why they need width. There is also evidence that residential apartments/homes with water views attract a premium, and add eyes on the street when retail has closed or on quiet days when it is not so sunny.

 

The day we visited it was a nice but quiet day on the river promenade, so we had a great lunch where most others were meeting, in the more active old market place.