Category Archives: Planning

Hamilton’s town belt 1864 drawing

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The 1864 Hamilton West town plan was surveyed by W.Blackburn and drawn by E. Bellairs. The names of Gerhard Mueller as chief surveyor, Auckland, and S.Percy Smith as Surveyor General are also on this drawing. One point to note about this drawing is that it refers to Ngaruawahia, not Newcastle. Also, other than directions to Māori town names, only Wai Tawhiriwhiri links this map to the per 1860s invasion/confiscation and there is no reference to Redoubts or Te Rapa Pa and Kirikiriroa Pa. The link to the University of Waikato Library map 013 dates this drawing to 1895.

The Town of Hamilton East drawing indicates it was surveyed by W.Blackburn, T.G.Sandes, [I’m thinking it should also include William Australia Graham] and others, and names the Chief Surveyor, Auckland as J.Mackenzie, dated Sep 1904. The bottom left corner names J.Simms and the bottom right shows J.W.A. Marchant as Surveyor General. This drawing shows complete removal of any relationship to the pre 1860s invasion/confiscation history. The University of Waikato Library dates this drawing to 1924. For more personal history on Hamilton’s early surveyors, see the following link. – The pioneer land surveyors of NZ part IV biographical notes

The focus of this post is on the thinking supporting having a Town Belt, which we also see in Wellington 1840, Dunedin 1846, and William Light’s 1838 plan for Adelaide. In England this approach was known as Country Zones and Breathing Places, based on JC Loudon’s 1829 plan for London, which the Landscape Architects Association explains in this link

Green belts: the history and landscape architecture of a key planning idea’ Some key points from JC Loudon’s 1829 ‘green belt’ plan

*‘our plan is very simple; that of surrounding London, as it already exists, with a zone of open country, at the distance of say one mile [1.6 km], or one mile and a half [2.4 km], from what may be considered the centre’
* ‘the metropolis may be extended in alternate mile zones of buildings, with half mile [0.8 km] zones of country or gardens, till one of the zones touched the sea… [so that] there could never be an inhabitant who would be farther than half a mile [0.8 km] from an open airy situation’
* ‘we have drawn the boundary lines as perfect circles; but in the execution of the project this is by no means necessary, nor even desirable’
* ‘supposing a town to be founded on this principle, a capital for an Australian union for example; then we should propose to place all the government public buildings round the central circle’
* ‘in the first and succeeding zones of country we would place the… churches, burial grounds, theatres, universities, parochial institutions, workhouse gardens, botanical and zoological gardens, public picture and statue galleries, national museums, public conservatories and tea-gardens…’
*‘in the country zones we should permit individuals, on proper conditions of rent and regulations, to establish all manner of rural coffee-houses, and every description of harmless amusement; and the space not occupied by these establishments, and by the public buildings before mentioned, we would lay out as park and pleasure-ground scenery, and introduce in it all the plants, trees, and shrubs which would grow in the open air, with innumerable seats, covered and uncovered, in the sun and in the shade’
* ‘we would rather see, in every country, innumerable small towns and villages, than a few overgrown capitals’

We can see that having a Town Belt was standard town planning for invasion/confiscation forces in these two plans. 1865 Whatawhata & Newcastle & 1865 Alexandra – Pirongia


But this town belt idea was not a rule; it was more the desire to protect town breathing spaces, which became New Zealand law under “The Plan of Towns Regulation Act, 1875” which came into force on 1st January, 1876.

1. Streets of not less than 99 feet [30m] from building line to building line.
2. Reservations for recreation grounds; these to be not less than one-tenth of the area of the town; the separate sizes of the reserves to be not less than 12½ square chains [0.5 hectare].
3. Cemeteries were prohibited in towns.
4. One acre in every ten was to be reserved as a town endowment.
5. In addition to the recreation grounds reserves were to be provided for rubbish disposal, gravel pits, quarries etc.
6. Plans of towns showing reserves etc. were to be lodged and to obtain Governor’s approval before being offered for sale.
7. Streets, as nearly as a due regard to the natural features of the country would permit, were to be laid off in straight lines and at right angles to each other.
This Act was limited in its application to future towns to be laid on Crown Lands. It had no application to existing towns where the evils of original mistakes had grown in intensity.


Category: Environment, Planning

Te Rapa Pa – my notes

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I’ll start with the meeting house called Wairere (meaning flowing water). What we know is that “one of the Chiefs responsible for building the meeting house called Wairere at Te Rapa Pa” (p57*) was Porokoru, who was “one of the last chiefs to occupy Te Rapa Pa” (p56*) and another was Pirihi Tomonui (died 1891). “He was responsible for the dismantling of the large meeting house, named Wairere, which stood at Te Rapa Pa, now Cobham Drive” (p31*). What I would like to know is whether any of it survives as photographic records or as fragments of the original building.
*Source: Wiremu Puke – Nga Tapuwae O Hotnmauea, April 2003

The location of Te Rapa Pa is south of the Kirikiriroa Pa, in the area now known as Graham Park, on Cobham Dr, and Yendall Park, which is near Waikato Hospital. The people living here were Ngati Koura and an early important resident was the warrior chief Hotumauea (a relative of Hanui) and later his descendent Parengaope (born 1765), who was the mother of the first Māori king.

Pre to 1863 European visitors to Te Rapa Pa**
Benjamin Ashwell (Missionary), F.R. von Hochstetter (Geologist), Gorst and Fenton
“Hochstetler drew a map showing a flour-mill, which was apparently located on the Kourahi stream. This was said to have been the mill with which Kirikiriroa was associated**”
** Source: Fiona Corcoran – Hamilton Library, Ref 993.115 1 VIS, 1998

I also have a scrap of paper titled ‘Hamilton historical sites – Early industrial sites’ which adds more detail about the flour mill.

“Te Rapa flour mill – This was situated near Te Rapa Pa and driven by the waters of the Kourahi stream, which were dammed up with an earth dam. Remains of this dam were visible before the site was destroyed by earthworks. This Kourahi stream is almost dry now as most of the run-off from surrounding area is carried away in storm water pipes. The mill was Maori owned and is shown on the map of the district drawn by Hochstetter in 1858”

More about the mill can be found in a book by H. Norris – Armed settlers: The story of the founding of Hamilton, NZ, 1864-1874 (page 17).
“In 1857 Haera, a chief at Kirikiriroa, asked F.D. Fenton, the Resident Magistrate in the Waikato, to come to Kirikiriroa. This Fenton refused to do unless the Maoris there asked for him. However, he went to Te Rapa and spent the night, hoping that the invitation would arrive. It did not come, and he left. The feeling among the natives there, he thought, was not good. “Speaking of the mill here, which had broken and become useless, one said, ‘yes, the pakeha is a humbugging people’” (NZ Parliamentary Papers, 14 E No. 1 C.)
The location of Te Rapa puzzled me. The name is now given to the district north of Hamilton, but in the survey at the time, the parish of Te Rapa is west and south of the original Hamilton West. A map provided by Gorst (J.E. Gorst: The Maori King) shows “Te Rapa or Kirikiriroa” on the west bank of the river. He seems to have considered that of the two villages encroaching on each other, Te Rapa was the more important. When he visited the Waikato a second time he said “The railway crosses the Waikato at the old ferry of Te Rapa, now called Hamilton” (J.E. Gorst: New Zealand Revisited). There is a natural pa, with the remains of food pits still showing, on the river bank between the pumping station and Waikato Hospital. This was probably the fortress for Te Rapa. Here, it is said, the Ngati Koura lived and one of them, Hotumane, was catapulted right across the river from a bent tree.” ( Waharoa Te Puke)

Link to more on Maori flour mills of the Auckland Province 1846-1860 by R.P.Hargreaves

To conclude, at the end of Park Terrace is one of six plaques placed in the city of Hamilton in 1964.
For more information, see the Waikato Times Hamilton Centenary issue, Monday, August 24, 1964: page 40 – Plaques mark historic sites.


Category: Planning