Category Archives: Politics

Wuppertal Introduction

This city is both poly-centric and a linear city. Along its axis is the 13km-long suspension railway (Schwebebahn), with around 65,000 passengers each day using its 20 stations. Alongside this is the heavy rail line with 400 train journeys daily through 9 stations, and below these is the B7 German federal highway. Crossing all of them is the Sonnborner cross-motorway junction, which at the time of its opening in 1974 was considered the largest inner-city motorway intersection in Europe. This place is very well connected.

The city is said to have no clear centre. It has two major urban centres (Elberfeld and Barmen) and five other districts, which are predominantly small towns with their own centres. The city of Wuppertal was not actually governed by a single city council until 1929, when 5 smaller cities united, then in 1975 it divided into 9 municipalities or boroughs, which are further divided into 69 districts for statistical purposes. (Hamilton is divided into 44 areas by Census NZ).

Wuppertal claims to be the greenest city in Germany, and is said to have two-thirds green space in the total municipal area. From any part of the city, it is only a ten-minute walk to one of the public parks or woodland paths. Here is an explanation of how it is measured. In total, 29% (4858 hectares) of the urban area is forest and open spaces, 7.8% (1318 hectares) consists of parks and green space, and 21% (about 3500 hectares) is used for agriculture. In addition, there are about 8000 allotments on 380 hectares and 46 cemeteries on an area of ​​160 hectares. The Wupper River also now flows clean and is alive with wild life, unlike two decades ago when schools would need to close because of the bad smell coming from it. As a benchmark of how green Hamilton is: ‘Currently, Hamilton has around 2% indigenous habitat cover.(p28) … at least 10% (preferably 20%) of remnant habitat cover is needed across a landscape to protect biodiversity and maintain the functions of ecosystems (p44)’. From: Community, Services and Environment Committee 30 Oct 2018

A bit of history on the cities of Elberfeld and Barmen, which together boasted 189,489 inhabitants in 1880, then the conurbation was regarded as the sixth largest city in the German Empire after Berlin, Hamburg, Breslau, Munich and Dresden. Cologne (144,772 inhabitants), Dusseldorf (95,458) and all cities of the Ruhr were well down in the bottom rankings.

From 1874 a horse tramway served the local traffic needs of the valley. But the local traffic problems continued to increase. In June 1903, the suspension railway opened. Bench-mark this against the world’s first electric elevated railway, which started in 1893 in Chicago when its population  was over 1 million; in 2012, the average number of weekday boardings on the Chicago Green Line was 70,554.  The Chicago model was proposed for partner towns along the Wupper River, but there were protests from the horse tramway company and a public discussion on the possible disfigurement of the cityscape, so the Schwebebahn was built.

What we need to ask ourselves is can we take on a project like this? Hamilton city is moving toward the population that Elberfeld and Barmen had 100 years ago. The people of these cities allowed themselves to let their interests overlap into each other’s cities. Even more impressive is the fact at a regional level the ‘Verkhrsverbund* Rhein-Ruhr’ (VRR) rail and ticketing extends into neighbouring regions and a neighbouring country (The Netherlands). Now look at the Hamilton to Auckland link. Our leaders have been living in silos and only recently allowed themselves to think about the overlapping benefits public transport links give to the regions. They now need to be ambitious. In 1887, the Elberfeld and Barmen councillors chose a ‘commission for examining the project of an elevated railway.’ Sixteen years and 16 million gold marks later the Wuppertal Schwebebah begain providing Wuppertal a public transport service, which has now been in operation for over a hundred years. (*means ‘Transport network’)

Speed Design Vs Posted Speed

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The point of this post is to show a weak link between design speed and posted speed, and to illustrate that the optimum posted speed limit is set more by leaders than engineers.

A 5 km/h speed sign is what one sees when entering the car-park at Te Rapa PlaceMakers, while entering Bunnings car-park the speed is assumed to be 50 km/h. They are similar car-park designs, types of business and client types.

A 10 km/h speed limit is used at all supermarket car-parks unless you’re shopping at Countdown

15 km/h is the speed at Countdown supermarkets, unless you shop at Countdown Liverpool St, which is 10km/h. There are no engineering, design, franchise or user differences. What makes things different is the managers’ thinking about the level of risk and what is a ‘reasonably practicable’ speed to reduce the risk of harm.

20km/h is a benchmark speed. The AustRoads safety team, which led the Grey St safety improvement plan, mentions that speeds of around 20 km/h are used to avoid serious injury. A 20km/h limit is used in the German city of Koblenz for its city centre streets. The road use in central Koblenz isn’t different to Hamilton’s Barton St (30km/h) or Victoria St (50km/h between Bryce St and London St); only the risk of serious harm from speed is different.

30km/h is now what 50km/h was last century. Most urban areas in Europe use 30km/h as a default speed. There is a good reason: “for a speed choice of 30 km/h instead of 50 km/h, the estimated reduction in fatal crash risk is 95%” (from the AustRoads safety team that led the Grey St safety improvement plan). Even the Chief Executive of AA advocates for 30km/h speed limits. In Seattle, the speed limit on all residential (non-arterial) streets is 20 mph [30km/h], and the speed limit on arterials is 25 mph [40km/h], unless otherwise posted. Speed is the critical factor in the severity and frequency of crashes. Learn more about why Seattle lowered speed limits in 2016.

A 40km/h [25 mph] default speed is used increasingly across cities in the USA. Speed is the key to reducing the severity of harm resulting from mistakes. For Example: “Since 2014, [in] New York City … the city’s traffic fatalities have declined 28 percent with a 45 percent decline in pedestrian fatalities — bucking national fatality trends, which have increased 15 percent over the same period.”

50km/h is a misused speed in urban areas. It is seen to be an efficient speed for journeys that involve moving a very large number of motor vehicles along a single lane. The problem is that cities are made up of places, where people walk from homes or car-parks to socialise face-to-face, to shop, to go to school, or many other day-to-day activities, all of which involve crossing roads as pedestrians. A pedestrian will be almost always seriously harmed, and in fact has a 50% chance of being killed in a conflict with a person driving a car travelling at 50km/h. Never mind who makes the mistake, the pedestrian is always the victim.